How does a single-phase transformer work?
How does a single-phase transformer work? With sinusoidal AC voltage U1 at both ends of the primary coil, there exists AC current I1 in the conductor and generates alternating flux with diameter of 1, which is arranged along the core through the primary coil and the secondary coil to form a closed magnetic circuit. When the secondary coil inducts mutual inductance potential U2, diameter 1 also has self-inductance potential E1 in the primary coil induction. The direction of E1 is opposite and closed to the direction of voltage U1, which limits the size of I 1. In order to maintain a certain power consumption when the diameter is 1, and the single-phase transformer itself has a certain loss, although the secondary is not connected to the load, there is still a certain current in the primary coil, which we call "no-load current".
If the secondary coil generates current I2, the magnetic flux 2 and 2 directions are opposite to 1, which cancel each other. The total magnetic flux in the core decreases. Therefore, in order to reduce the primary self-inductance voltage E1, the result increases I1, indicating that there is a close relationship between primary current and secondary load. When the secondary load current increases, I1 increases, 1 also increases, and 1 just supplements the flux offset 2, so as to keep the total flux in the core unchanged. If the loss of single-phase transformer is not considered, the ideal secondary load of single-phase transformer consumes power from the main power source. The single-phase transformer can change the number of windings of the secondary coil according to the need. To change the secondary voltage, but not the power consumed by the allowable load.